From circadian entrainment to blood glucose management to appetite control to sleep quality:
We’re really not made to skip breakfast and eat late at night. Nearly every line of evidence points to this. And now:
Is the timing of caloric intake associated with variation in diet-induced thermogenesis and in the metabolic pattern? A randomized cross-over study (Bo et al., 2015)
Study design: identical meals consumed at 8AM or 8PM, controlled for activity, fast duration, and prior meals.
Metabolism shuts down at night. That means you’re not burning fat or building muscle. Postprandial metabolic rate (or the thermic effect of feeding) is gimped in the evening.
Any carbs you eat at night stick around in the bloodstream longer because of the circadian regulation of insulin sensitivity (skeletal muscle is insulin resistant in the evening):
despite having more insulin in the evening!
These aren’t just “correlations.” You don’t need to eat breakfast in the morning, but “need =/= optimization.” If you’re hell bent on fasting AND big dinners, skip lunch.
There are many more reasons: