Nrf2, what can’t you do

I’m a fan of nutrients. Antioxidants/detoxicants are cool, although I’d rather my body make them in the exact quantity and location they’re needed.

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That’s what Nrf2 does splendidly.

As a quick reminder: glucosinolates present in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, etc., are separated from the enzyme myrosinase on a cellular level. If you cook them in this condition, without crushing them a bit (like you do with the side of your knife to a clove of garlic), the myrosinase is destroyed by heat before it gets the chance to convert glucosinolates to sulforaphane & isothiocyanates.

No Nrf2 for you.

don’t rush your crucifers, crush your crucifers! #Nrf2


Who would buy this?



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Study: a keto diet improves pound-for-pound physical performance in weight lifting athletes

A low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet reduces body weight without compromising performance in powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting athletes (Greene et al., 2018)

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This was a tricky one. Many relevant moving parts.

They were experienced lifters so we can trust they knew what they were doing in the gym, and any improvements would be due to diet as opposed to n00b gainz.




On the flipside, this was a THREE MONTH crossover which really levels the playing field wrt confounding variables.

Carbs were <50 grams or <10% per day, which by virtually any definition is very low carb/ketogenic for these young highly active individuals. They were instructed to maintain their normal protein and calorie intake, which in reflection may have been a flaw in the study design…

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Effects of ketone bodies on endurance exercise

or “a misunderstanding of ketoadaptation proper (Sansone et al., 2018).”

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This was a good review article, although imho the authors had a clear bias. It stuck out to me because it is the opposite of my bias lol

One of the characteristics of ketoadaptation is the ability to perform equally high intensity exercise at a lower RQ indicating the reliance on more fat oxidation. This can be assessed by measuring maximal fat oxidation rates, which can reach 1.5 g/min during high intensity physical activity.

This review seems to promote a high carb diet during training, then supplementing ketone esters on game day to boost performance… but also talks of ketoadaptation and maximizing fat oxidation rates… those two things are _kinda_ mutually exclusive…

The old school dogma is that carbs/glycolysis fuel high intensity exercise whereas more fat is used for endurance exercise. That’s still pretty true, unless you factor in nutritional ketosis / ketoadaptation proper.

On the flipside, this article is full of cool tidbits about ketones and facts about exercise economy. For my take on that and more, head over to Patreon! Five bucks a month for full access and there are many other options.

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Anticatabolic effects of ketone bodies in skeletal muscle

or, the protein-sparing effects of fat-derived fuels (Koutnik et al., 2018)

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It was originally coined “the glucose-sparing effect,” but the whole point of sparing glucose in this context is sparing amino acids & protein. Because during starvation, if you kept up the rate of protein degradation to meet glucose needs via amino acid-gluconeogenesis you wouldn’t last very long. Not just skeletal muscle protein, but heart muscle, diaphragm, organs, etc.

This nice review highlights some of the new findings about the signalling effects of ketones but the title has led some to think the muscle-sparing properties of ketones during starvation carry over to making muscle hypertrophy gainz in the #context of nutritional ketosis. Here’s what’s up.


Truth is, most studies on nutritional ketosis show it’s great for fat loss, but not so great for the retention of fat-free mass. On the other hand, resistance exercise and increased dietary protein help with the latter. Those two things don’t need to be mutually exclusive…

For the rest of this article and more, head over to Patreon! Five bucks a month for full access and there are many other options. It’s ad-free and you can cancel if it sucks 🙂

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Lion’s Mane

I’m not taking crazy pills!

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Dump various extracts of this stuff on brain cells and they grow.

That’s a good sign.

The influence of Lion’s Mane on myelination in vitro (Kolotushkina et al., 2003)

and

Herecinones and erinacines: stimulators of nerve growth factor in Lion’s Mane (Ma et al., 2009)

and there are any number of animal studies, but we really care about what it can do for us; like, what could we expect from taking this stuff?

We have a couple human studies… but for a that, head over to Patreon!

For personalized health consulting services: drlagakos@gmail.com.

Affiliate linksKetoLogic for keto-friendly shakes, creamers, snacks, etc. And get 15% off your ketone measuring supplies HERE.

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The neuroscience and drives for food, water, and salt

“Well-being requires the maintenance of energy stores, water, and sodium within permissive zones” (Lowell, 2019).

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Nice new review out that covers up-to-date many of the concepts around ad lib appetite. Talks a lot about specific neurons, and we have a LOT of neurons, like a trillion or something.

“Energy is so critical for survival that the body maintains backup fat stores in the event that food becomes unavailable.” Duh. Leptin leptin leptin leptin

Leptin tells your brain when fat stores are low, triggering hunger. Leptin resistance is confusing from an experimental design point of view, but is likely important. It is thought to function assymetrically, wherein low leptin strongly promotes hunger whereas high leptin only modestly promotes satiety. Check out Wiley’s book on this.

Fat + salt + starch = french fries. Easily overeaten.

Fat + salt + sugar = icing. Easily overeaten.

Why?

More players include POMC, a-MSH, AgRP, and GABA, but for thathead over to Patreon! Five bucks a month for access to all articles. It’s ad-free and you can cancel if it sucks 🙂

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Affiliate linksThe Keto Box and KetoAF Homepage for keto-friendly shakes and snacks, etc. And get 15% off your ketone measuring supplies HERE.

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Delish stocks and broths from Kettle & Fire.

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This study on intermittent fasting wasn’t bad!

Effects of Intermittent Versus Continuous Energy Intakes on Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Risk in Women with Overweight (Hutchison et al., 2019)

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8 weeks, 70% calorie restriction via continuous energy restriction vs. 70% calorie restriction via intermittent fasting (skipping dinner on 3 non-consecutive days per week) vs. no calorie restriction but still intermittent fasting vs. control. A+ setup so far.

  1. Skipping dinner: don’t freak out. Some people are totally OK with 24-hour fasts but freak out at the idea of skipping dinner. That’s weird (P<0.05).
  2. As with most weight loss studies, some people are going to report being hungry every once in a while. Hopefully not too much, or else it deteriorates adherence. This wasn’t a problem in this study, however, because all food was provided and it was only 8 weeks.

We’ll review the hunger data next (data from weeks 1 & 6), but for now, let’s break down the above figure.

For the rest of this article and more, head over to Patreon! Five bucks a month for access to all articles. It’s ad-free and you can cancel if it sucks 🙂

If you’re interested in personalized health consulting services, send me an email:drlagakos@gmail.com.

Affiliate linksKetoLogic for keto-friendly shakes, creamers, snacks, etc. And get 15% off your ketone measuring supplies HERE.

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Rhythms of life: cognition & maintaining a healthy body composition across the lifespan

Circadian disruption, weight loss, and brain fog (Logan and McClung, 2019)

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“In psychiatry and behavioural medicine, novel circadian-based interventions are rare and often overlooked. Even in cases in which circadian disruption is not a primary cause of a disorder, stabilizing sleep-wake patterns using behavioural, environmental, or pharmacological tools might ease symptoms.”

Many studies suggest this is also true for weight management. You may think your subjective sleep quality is good, but have no idea how much circadian interventions can help shed a couple pounds. Reduced food cravings, improved nutrient partitioning & cognitive function, etc.

It’s important to start early, but becomes more important as we age.

For the rest of this article and more, head over toPatreon! Five bucks a month for access to all articles. It’s ad-free and you can cancel if it sucks 🙂

If you’re interested in setting up consultations with me, reach out: drlagakos@gmail.com.

Affiliate linksKetoLogic for keto-friendly shakes, creamers, snacks, etc. And get 15% off your ketone measuring supplies HERE.

Still looking for a pair of hot blue blockers? TrueDark is offering 10% off HERE and Spectra479 is offering 15% off HERE. If you have no idea what I’m talking about, read this then this.

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Don’t blame asparagus and mushrooms for what soda and potato chips did to you

“Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses” (Reynolds et al., 2019)

Essential notes:

-this article was about carb quality not quantity

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-fibre is complicated. You can say soluble & insoluble, but really there are many different types and all of them still aren’t even clearly one or the other.

-a low carb diet can also be a high fibre diet. In fact, I guess since my own diet has a lot of low carb (LC) plants, I was shocked that they considered 25-29 grams “high fibre.”

-again, a high fibre diet doesn’t have to be a high carb diet

-while I don’t doubt the effects of various fibres per se, other components of these foods may also contribute to their benefits (vitamins, minerals, other nutrients, etc.).

-fibre will not end the obesity epidemic otherwise Metamucil would’ve ended it years ago. The only fibre supp I’ve recommended is Bimuno, and that’s for GI problems not weight loss.

Is fibre *essential?*

Essential for what?

For the rest of this article and more, head over to Patreon! Five bucks a month for access to all articles. It’s ad-free and you can cancel at any time.

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Almonds, asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, chives, endive, escarole, leek, mushrooms, onion, peppers, scallion, spinach, etc., etc., etc.

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Mistimed food intake and sleep can mess you up.

Mistimed food intake and sleep alters 24-hour time-of-day patterns of the human plasma proteome (Depner et al., 2018)

or

Why you need to be mindful of circadian rhythms Every. Single. Day.

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I once heard a joke – “I wish going to the gym was like going to high school. Once you get your diploma / get fit, you never need to go back” (or something like that). Unfortnately, circadian rhythms also fall into this category.

This study examined a pretty extreme model of circadian misalignment. Basically, they took a bunch of measurements during a normal day & night, then allowed the subjects a brief nap during the afternoon the next day, kept them up all night, then took more measurements during daytime sleep and evening wakefulness.

Looking at the bottom graph should tell you all you need to know about the importance of daily circadian entrainment. While some circadian clocks can maintain a normal rhythm for a little while after a period of circadian misalignment, look how quickly melatonin increased during the daytime in circadian misalignment. This didn’t really bode well for sleep as it declined by almost a full hour…

For the rest of this article and more, head over to Patreon! Five bucks a month for access to all articles. It’s ad-free and you can cancel at any time.

If you’re interested in setting up consultations with me, reach out: drlagakos@gmail.com.

Affiliate links: Still looking for a pair of hot blue blockers? TrueDark is offering 10% off HERE and Spectra479 is offering 15% off HERE. If you have no idea what I’m talking about, read this then this.

Join Binance and get some cryptoassets or download Honeyminer and get some Bitcoins for free

20% off some delish stocks and broths from Kettle and Fire HERE

If you want the benefits of  ‘shrooms but don’t like eating them, Real Mushrooms makes great extracts. 10% off with coupon code LAGAKOS. I recommend Lion’s Mane for the brain and Reishi for everything else

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