Short- and long-term regulation of appetite

The energy expenditure and food intake of individual men.

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So, this study has been making the rounds: Skipping Breakfast Before Exercise Creates a More Negative 24-hour Energy Balance: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Physically Active Young Men (Edinburgh et al., 2019)

I didn’t want to comment on it because critics could easily say I was just biased (many studies support breakfast from a variety of angles therefore so do I).

Does skipping breakfast allow your to maintain an energy deficit and lose excess body fat? If so, GO FOR IT. Skipping breakfast may not be optimal long-term wrt health & general well-being, but it’s better than carrying around excess body fat for decades.

I don’t buy intermittent fasting does much beyond that — with the exception of a few studies on eTRF (early Time-Restricted Feeding) which showed favorable effects on weight loss, insulin sensitivity, and fasting blood glucose. Not entirely sure why this happens with skipping dinner and not skipping breakfast but it is what it is. Probably has something to do with, ya know, circadian rhythms.

Regulation of energy balance –

1) I think the Edhold 1955 study on the short- vs. long-term regulation of appetite is great. Both what they did and their discussion.


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calories proper



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