I was bored and had a stronger-than-usual espresso, saw the above Tweet, so obviously I decided to read the Health & Safety Guide that came with my cell phone.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) set specific limits to Radio Frequency (RF) that any given electronic device can emit. Theoretically, at or below this level is “safe.” The actual number comes from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The overall tone of this document is grave, ie, they take this RF limit very seriously.
The limit: 1.6 W/kg (Specific Absorption Rate [SAR]) or 0.0016 W/g.
I checked online at www.fcc.gov/oet/ea, and my phone is rated 0.3 Watts (W) at around 1.5 cm – distance is important: in this case, it’s the difference between squashing the phone between your face and your hand vs. holding it a finger tip’s distance away.
So, is my brain safe? Hard to say; how many grams of brain are within 1.5 cm from my brain? If we’re talking whole head exposure, ~4 kg, that’d be ~6 W. But I’m more concerned about the 4 grams of brain closest to my ear, within that 1.5 cm range, because brain cancer is pretty scary at any level of brain cancer (ie, whether it affects whole brain or just the 4 grams closest to my ear).
I can’t figure out these maths so I’m sticking with earbuds until I can.
It takes about 3 weeks to become fully ketoadapted and you don’t really get more ketoadapted thereafter, at least as per max fat oxidation rates (which seems a pretty good surrogate, imo).
Important point: “Athletes who drop carbs cold turkey suddenly suck.” And performance usually recovers by around week 3. This has been confirmed in nearly every proper study on the subject, in a variety of contexts.
Which brings me to the latest alleged slam on keto & physical performance:
Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit of intensified training in elite race walkers (Burke et al., 2016)
Posted in Advanced nutrition, diet, Dietary fat, Energy balance, Exercise, fat, insulin, Ketosis, muscle, Protein, strength, TPMC
Tagged Atkins, calories, calories proper, carbs, diet, energy balance, energy expenditure, exercise, fat, insulin, ketogenic, ketosis, nutrition
There are a lot of mysteries involving melatonin, eg, relative importance of gut vs. pineal-derived melatonin. Does brain melatonin talk to peripheral MT receptors? Does gut melatonin talk to brain MT receptors?
What we do know: oral melatonin works in people with circadian-related sleep disorders. This may suggest that oral/gut melatonin talks to brain MT receptors OR that oral/gut melatonin corrects circadian sleep problems by acting in the periphery. OR a major target of brain melatonin is peripheral MT receptors. I don’t know.
And as a further testament that melatonin supps aren’t sleeping pills is that they’re non-addictive and can at least temporarily “fix” circadian sleep problems: after prolonged treatment, people report no withdrawal symptoms and still sleep better even up to two weeks after discontinuation (Lemoine et al., 2011)!
Posted in angiotensin, Bromocriptine, Cabergoline, chronopharmacology, circadian, Dopamine, melatonin, Sun, vasopressin, Vitamin D
Tagged circadian rhythm, melatonin
Effects of diet composition on postprandial energy availability during weight loss maintenance (Walsh et al., 2013)
Now, we’re getting somewhere!
3 diets (carbs 10%, 40% or 60%; protein was higher in the lowest carb group). Four weeks. CROSSOVER.
Then a test meal which approximated the diet assignment. Total “energy availability” in the blood was approximated by measuring the calories in blood glucose, free fatty acids, and ketones.
Posted in Advanced nutrition, diet, Dietary fat, Energy balance, fat, insulin, Ketosis, Leptin, Protein
Tagged calories proper, carbs, energy balance, energy expenditure, fat, fiber, insulin, ketones, nutrition, protein
Study: 12 weeks, obese men, very high fat low carb (VHFLC) vs. low fat high carb (LFHC) (Veum et al., 2016) #FATFUNC
It wasn’t explicitly AD LIB, but pretty close. I say this because that is the magnitude of appetite decline we might expect when people go on The Hunger Free Diet(s), eg,
^^^ GOOD IDEA
Posted in Advanced nutrition, circadian, diet, Dietary fat, Energy balance, Exercise, fat, insulin, Ketosis, muscle, Protein, Sugar, TPMC
Tagged body composition, calories proper, carbs, diet, insulin, ketosis, nutrition, processed food, protein, soda
Three stories about LIGHT
Carbon monoxide (CO): one of the nasty things in car emissions & cigarette smoke. Also, a byproduct of the ever-important heme. Heme, as you may recall, activates Rev-erb:
“Food for thought: an endogenous ligand of Rev-erb is heme (the iron-binding element in red blood cells). Heme is degraded into bilirubin. Elevated levels of bilirubin cause jaundice. A treatment of neonatal jaundice is exposure to blue light. Blue light is a major regulator of circadian rhythms and Rev-erb is an executive-level player in this game. The primary mechanisms of blue light appear unrelated in these two models (melanopsin activation vs. bilirubin photoisomerization), but seem intertwined, because heme activates Rev-erb. Cool.”
News: Disruption of the body’s internal clock causes disruption of metabolic processes
Science: Reciprocal regulation of carbon monoxide and the circadian clock (Klemz et al., 2016)
Tl;dr: heme degradation occurs on a circadian cycle and produces CO. CO prevents Clock/Bmal1 from binding to DNA. Inhibiting this process throws off numerous other circadian rhythms in the liver.
SUNLIGHT and food in the morning, and let endogenously produced CO rhythmically tune the clock in the evening.
Posted in angiotensin, Bromocriptine, Cabergoline, chronopharmacology, circadian, Dopamine, melatonin, Protein, sleep, Sun, vasopressin
Tagged circadian rhythm, melatonin
Petro just posted a brief article about acipimox & the insulin hypothesis. Similar to insulin’s forte, acipimox inhibits lipolysis. This leads to expansion of adipose tissue, and eventually, weight gain.
Acipimox acts on the same receptor as niacin and ketones, GPR109a. That is, all three of those agents inhibit lipolysis. We’ve discussed some of the implications of this on fuel partitioning HERE.
Posted in Advanced nutrition, empty calories, Energy balance, insulin, Ketosis, muscle, strength, TPMC
Tagged carbs, empty calories, energy balance, exercise, insulin, ketogenic, ketones, ketosis, muscle, nutrition
Disclaimer: I’m meat-cancer agnostic. *IF* meat causes cancer (and I don’t think it does), it happens extremely slowly and only at very high levels of intake: to get statistically significant risk ratios, researchers usually look to top vs. bottom quartiles, which is quite a large difference in intake.
Meat-cancer studies Tl;dr: some studies show positive associations, some neutral, and none are negative (ie, it’s unlikely meat prevents cancer).
That said, if meat does cause cancer, here is how it might happen:
1. The “Maybes:” AGEs, leucine/mTOR, methionine, etc., but only in combination with numbers 2 & 3. Not by themselves.
2. Circadian arrhythmia and cancer: potential mechanisms
3. Most animal foods have a lot of linoleate 18:2n6 or at least a lot more n6 than n3 (grass-fed is usually a little better in this context). More on this below.
Posted in angiotensin, Bromocriptine, Cabergoline, chronopharmacology, circadian, Dopamine, melatonin, mortality, muscle, Protein, sleep, Sun
Tagged circadian rhythm, melatonin, mortality, processed food, protein
I’m not vegan but the “Anti-Vegan Because B12” argument is lame. B12 insufficiency is largely due to malabsorption, not steak deficiency.
Many people take supps, but somehow anti-vegans think B12 invalidates veganism. It doesn’t. Also, 1) tons of B12 in oysters; 2) nori B12 works in humans and rats; and 3) mushrooms still haven’t been ruled out as a legit source. Whether you consider these foods vegan or not is a different story. Many non-vegans are B12-deficient, too -> all the steak in the world won’t help if you can’t absorb it.
I’m not undermining the severity of B12 deficiency, just noting some basic facts.
My bias: things like T2DM, obesity, and even some cancers and mood disorders are due primarily to circadian arrhythmia, sleep, & LIGHT… and secondarily to diet.
When it comes to diet, mostly plants plus some animal is optimal for humans in our modern #context, regardless of which Ice-Age Paleo-Fairy Tale™ you subscribe to. Things like sleep, LIGHT, and activity, among others, seem way more important than debating historical [theoretical] dietary minutiae.
Lastly, this particular debate isn’t “vegan vs. keto.” THEY’RE NOT MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE. “Eco-Atkins” is a thing. Animals provide a convenient source of LC protein, but it can be done without them.
Posted in Advanced nutrition, diet, fat, fermentation, fiber, Grains, insulin, Ketosis, microbiome, microbiota, Protein
Tagged Atkins, carbs, diet, fat, fiber, grains, insulin, ketogenic, ketones, ketosis, obesity, Paleo, protein
Autophagy isn’t a big deal in the way some Internet Bro’s think it is. Yes, Dr Ohsumi received a Nobel Prize for cracking deeply into this nut, but that in no way means “intermittent fasting is awesome because autophagy.” Autophagy isn’t awesome like that.
Alternate title: The dark side of autophagy.
For example: Autophagy contributes to muscle wasting in cancer cachexia (Penna et al., 2013)
Cachexia (muscle wasting) is one of the leading contributors to poor quality of life in cancer patients. Thanks, autophagy.
“Autophagy is the major process for degradation of cellular constituents, its rate being enhanced under stress conditions leading to organelle damage…”
Posted in Advanced nutrition, diet, Exercise, insulin, Ketosis, muscle, Protein, TPMC
Tagged calories, calories proper, carbs, diet, energy balance, exercise, fat, nutrition