Suggested pre-reading: Metabolism at night
Recently, when the topic of breakfast came up, I got something like this: “correlation isn’t causation, and anyway, it’s because people aren’t eating bacon & eggs at night, they’re having cake & alcohol.”
OK, you can’t say “correlation isn’t causation” and then suggest a cause, literally, in the same sentence.
But anyway, yeah, that actually is a plausible cause. Cake & alcohol are mainly consumed at night.
Also, metabolism is gimped in the evening: 1) skeletal muscle insulin resistance; 2) adipose tissue insulin sensitivity; and 3) impaired diet-induced thermogenesis.
Also, studies that directly tested One-Meal-A-Day (OMAD), breakfast vs. dinner (eg, Jacobs and Hirsh).
Tl;dr: for 3 weeks they had their subjects eating OMAD, ad lib, in the morning or evening. The breakfast group lost more weight. They were less hungry, so they ate less ad lib, so… CICO? Maybe, but they did a follow-up study controlling for calories. SAME THING HAPPENED. This may be due to better nutrient partitioning, but also food in the morning = higher diet-induced thermogenesis.
Low carb or low fat Hunger-Free Diet(s) — good things happen when central & peripheral circadian clocks are properly co-entrained by light & food.
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