It wasn’t even *that* high in protein (30g) but relative to skipping breakfast, everything got better (Gwin and Leidy, 2018).
At 7 days, this study was longer than some but shorter than others. Breakfast was provided by the researchers. Participants were on their own for lunch and dinner. Ad lib, although 7 days isn’t really long enough to influence body weight and this wasn’t even a goal of the researchers. Their goals were hunger, satiety, fullness, and sleep quality.
RANDOMIZED CROSSOVER. BOOM.
Small sample size (n = 13), although based on previous findings & expected effect sizes, they needed 12 participants for an 80% chance of detecting a statistically significant difference if one truly existed. Bigger sample sizes are usually better, but when those resources can be better spent elsewhere, researchers use these power calculations to determine the fewest participants required…
On day 7, they assessed some brain stuff before lunch and then sent them home with party boxes loaded with an assortment of pre-weighed foods & snacks. The participants were instructed to eat as much of whatever they wanted, ad lib, and return the boxes the following day.
The brain stuff:
Just like #eTRF…
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