It started out as “lose weight without hunger on LCHF” and went all the way to “effortless fasting on keto.” Works for some and it might be true, but the same can be said for low fat diets! The key, I think, in both contexts, is simple: fewer processed & refined foods… something the Paleo movement got right, imo (although I still think many low-calorie sweeteners are way less unhealthy than HFCS & sugar).
1) add “good calories” like almonds to your diet and appetite spontaneously compensates by eating less other stuff: energy neutral
2) you don’t compensate for added “bad calories” like sugar-sweetened beverages: positive energy balance
3) remove bad calories from your diet and you don’t compensate by eating more other stuff: negative energy balance
Book: Good Calories, Bad Calories
Posted in Advanced nutrition, diabetes, diet, Dietary fat, empty calories, Energy balance, fat, fiber, gluten, insulin, muscle, Protein, sleep, TPMC, Trans fat
Tagged body composition, calories proper, carbs, diet, empty calories, energy balance, fat, insulin, ketogenic, ketones, ketosis, muscle, nutrition, obesity, Paleo, processed food, protein, soda, sugar, trans fat
Tl;dr: SFA and DHA
Essential fatty acids? Well, there’s really only one, DHA, and we really only need a gram or two. In other words, our entire requirement for dietary fat can be met by about 2% of total calories (plus a few extra grams to accommodate fat-soluble vitamins) (plus DHA is never the sole fat in a food, so you’d be getting a few more grams of other fats, too). But still, a very low fat diet! But impractical and probably not very palatable or healthy.
On average, dietary fat comprises about a third of calories, roughly equally divided between SFA, MUFA, and PUFA (slightly less PUFA).
Major sources of SFA are pizza and desserts – no wonder SFA gets a bad rap!
Posted in Advanced nutrition, coconut, diet, Dietary fat, fat, Fish, TPMC, Trans fat
Tagged Atkins, calories, calories proper, carbs, diet, energy balance, fat, nutrition, obesity, Paleo, trans fat
Trigger warning? Maybe.
Disclaimer: I’m pro-LC (P<0.05), but not anti-LF because LF works better than LC for some people. And with the exception of things like keto for neurological issues, I think macros take a back seat to many other factors.
Myths: carbs cause insulin resistance (IR), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Carbs are intrinsically pathogenic. If a healthy person eats carbs, eventually they’ll get sick.
And the only prescription is more keto.
And of course all of this could’ve been prevented if they keto’d from the get-go.
Proponents of these myths are referring to regular food carbs, not limited to things like Oreo Coolattas (which would be more acceptable, imo). Taubes, Lustig, Attia, and many others have backed away from their anti-carb positions, yet the new brigade proceeds and has even upped the ante to include starvation. Because “LC = effortless fasting?”
Does this sound sane?
“No carbs ever,
no food often…
no one in their right mind would say lentils & beans cause diabetes
Posted in Advanced nutrition, circadian, diabetes, diet, Dietary fat, empty calories, Energy balance, Exercise, fat, fiber, Fish, Fructose, gluten, Grains, insulin, Ketosis, melatonin, mortality, muscle, Protein, sleep, smoking, strength, Sugar, Sun, TPMC
Tagged Atkins, calories, calories proper, carbs, circadian rhythm, diabetes, diet, empty calories, energy balance, exercise, fat, fiber, high fructose corn syrup, insulin, ketogenic, nutrition, obesity, protein, soda, sucrose, sugar, trans fat
…but it isn’t dead, imo, because that would be really hard to do. Like, seriously.
side note: please consider the modern views of Taubes, Lustig, Gardner, Attia, and others on Carbs™. They’re less “Carbs-cause-obesity, keto-for-all, etc.,” and more thinking it might not be Carbs™ per se, but rather processed and refined foods. And #context… And I tend to agree at the moment (nuances and caveats are subject to change, as more evidence accumulates).
disclaimer: I haven’t seen the full text of Hall’s recent study, but that’s not really relevant to what I want to discuss. In other words, I don’t think the full text will provide any additional details on this particular point.
Tl;dr: this study was not designed to prove or disprove metabolic advantage or the insulin-obesity hypothesis.
It’s in the study design: four weeks of low fat followed by four weeks of low carb. We KNOW that weight loss slows over time (especially if calories are controlled, as they were in this study). It has to do with the order of treatments.
Weight loss-slowing over time in the Minnesota Experiment:
Posted in Advanced nutrition, diabetes, diet, Dietary fat, empty calories, Grains, insulin, Ketosis, Leptin, Protein, sleep, Sun, TPMC
Tagged calories, carbs, diet, empty calories, energy balance, fiber, grains, insulin, ketogenic, ketones, ketosis, leptin, nutrition, obesity, Paleo, processed food, protein, sugar, trans fat
The original lipid hypothesis stated, more or less, that lowering blood cholesterol would reduce premature mortality from heart disease. At the time, it was thought that dietary cholesterol and saturated fat increased the ‘bad’ type of blood cholesterol, so the advice was to restrict those foods. All of that was wrong.
Lipid Hypothesis 2.0: Eat Butter
Posted in Advanced nutrition, chocolate, diet, Dietary fat, empty calories, Exercise, fat, insulin, Protein, Sugar
Tagged Atkins, body composition, calories proper, carbs, chocolate, diabetes, diet, empty calories, energy balance, fat, insulin, ketogenic, ketosis, nutrition, obesity, Paleo, protein, sugar, trans fat
MCTs provide a respectable boost in diet-induced thermogenesis (in some studies [eg, Kasai 2002 & Clegg 2012], but not others [Alexandrou 2007]), but I don’t think that’s what does it.
The alternative? MCTs aren’t “linoleate.” (sorry for lack of suspense)
Alcohol + MCTs vs. corn oil (from Kirpich 2013):
Further, feed rats a diet rich in either coconut oil, olive oil, safflower oil, evening primrose oil, or menhaden oil… and eventually the fat stored in their bodies reflect those fats – eg, linoleate only accumulated in the tissues of those fed safflower & evening primrose oils (Yaqoob 1995) (expect similar results with soybean & corn oils).
Researchers constantly refer to MCTs & coconut oil as “saturated fats,” but I always thought the chain length should be recognized. Perhaps. But with regard to certain benefits (eg, hepatoprotection), perhaps not.
Cacao butter has a lot of stearate (a fully saturated 18-carbon fatty acid) but not much linoleate or MCTs. This linoleate may very well be more of a detriment than stearate or MCTs are a benefit… (with regard to certain benefits [eg, hepatoprotection])
(Leslie Roberts, 1988) (she’s talking about stearate)
Posted in Advanced nutrition, chocolate, coconut, diet, Dietary fat, empty calories, Energy balance, fat, liver, Trans fat
Tagged cacao butter, calories, carbs, chocolate, coconut oil, diet, energy expenditure, fat, MCTs, nutrition, processed food, SFAs, sugar, trans fat
Trans fats, part IV
Proceed with caution, this is an exploratory post. Replacing CakesCookiesPiesPastriesBreadCerealsBiscuitsPizzaMuffins with [insert any whole food item here] is just a good idea. And more reasons to eat dark chocolate.
In Inflammatory, trans, or linoleate? the idea was explored that it might not be the theorized textbook pro-inflammatory end products of omega-6 fats that give them a bad rap, but rather the foods that contain them – ie, “cakes, cookies, pies, and pastries” (Kris-Etherton et al., 2012 NHANES), or “bread, cereals, cakes, biscuits, pies, pizza, and muffins” (Meyer et al., 2003 from down under).
Further, what starts out as an omega-6 fat can easily become peroxidized or isomerized into an oxidized or trans fat, respectively, via industrial molestation or just plain old cooking (eg, Romero et al., 1998, Marmesat et al., 2012, & Minami et al., 2012) – even just a few minutes in the microwave (Herzallah et al., 2005)! I don’t know exactly what all of these end products are for sure, but they might look something like this:
Thus, the culprit may not be native Dc9,c1218:2n6 linoleate.
Posted in Advanced nutrition, Dietary fat, empty calories, fat, Trans fat
Tagged artificial ingredients, calories proper, empty calories, fat, nutrition, processed food, sugar, trans fat
update: I learned a new trick. If you haven’t been receiving the regular updates to which you subscribed, it’s probably due to spam filters. Cure: find the update in your spam folder and reply to it. You don’t have to write anything, but the mere act of replying somehow tells your spam filter that the email wasn’t spam. It works for gmail, fwiw.
I [still] predict public approval of dietary fat will come along at a snail’s pace, and it won’t be a pan-approval of dietary fat at all. Instead, it will be selective approval of individual fatty acids. First, it was the medium chain fatty acids found in MCTs and coconut oil. Then, it was the fish oil fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively). Then, palmitoleic acid. Corn and soybean oil, on the other hand, are being appropriately recognized as bad. The utter hatred and fear of saturated fats is starting to wane, and we might even see a transition back to lard before I die (circa 2113). But today’s post is on another topic: trans fats, oxidized fish oils, and dairy fat.
What happens when dietary fat is abused?
Posted in Advanced nutrition, diet, Dietary fat, empty calories, fat, Fish, Protein
Tagged calories proper, diet, empty calories, fat, nutrition, processed food, sugar, trans fat
Do not get your hopes up, do not pass GO! do not collect $200. The Mediterranean Diet. Fail.
Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet (Estruch et al., 2013)
This is one of the biggest diet studies we’ve seen in a while, and no doubt it was a very good one. It very effectively put the Mediterranean Diet to the test.
I felt compelled to write about this study out of fear for the nutrition disinformation that it would likely inspire. The Mediterranean Diet is associated with all good things, happiness, red wine and olive oil; whereas the Atkins Diet is associated with artery clogging bacon-wrapped hot dogs and a fat guy who died of a heart attack. Nutrition disinformation.
If you ran a diet study with 3 intervention groups for 5 years, and by the end of the study everybody (in all 3 groups) was on more prescription medications, would you conclude any of the diets were “healthy?” If so, then we should work on your definition of “healthy.”
Study details: big study, lasted roughly 5 years, and the diet intervention was pristine. Mediterranean diet plus extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) vs. Mediterranean diet plus nuts vs. low fat control. They even used biomarkers to confirm olive oil and nut intake (hydroxytyrosol and linoleate, respectively). Compliance was good.
Posted in Advanced nutrition, diet, Dietary fat, empty calories, Energy balance, fat, Fish, gluten, Grains, insulin, mortality, Protein, Sugar, TPMC
Tagged Atkins, body composition, calories, calories proper, carbohydrates, carbs, diet, empty calories, energy balance, energy expenditure, fiber, gluten, grains, insulin, Mediterranean diet, mortality, obesity, Paleo, processed food, protein, soda, sugar, trans fat, wheat
As much as I’d like to say this is the nail-in-the-coffin, omega-6 causes irreversible fatality, I have a confession.
I believe it’s the empty calories, not the inflammatory omega-6 devil linoleate. Biscuits, cookies, processed foods of all shapes and sizes are simply the delivery vehicles for industrially modified and probably “trans” fats that started out innocent enough as soybean oil or omega-6 vegetable oils.
linoleate is the quintessential omega-6 fatty acid and is found at high levels in vegetable oils. just like the omega-3 linolenate found in soybean oil, processing of the oils usually damages them – turns them into trans fats and/or oxidizes them (by “oxidizes” I don’t mean fat burning, see pictorial below)
So despite the impeccable statistical anvil thrown at these data, which seem to clearly implicate linoleate, I don’t think it’s the linoleate. H E double hockey sticks, we probably don’t get enough normal unmodified linoleate. Unless you’re cracking shells, even “raw” almonds are Pasteurized.
don’t sanitize your food. your meat needn’t be burned, nor your nuts Pasteurized.
Posted in Advanced nutrition, diet, Dietary fat, empty calories, fat, mortality, Trans fat
Tagged empty calories, insulin, mortality, obesity, trans fat