The control of circadian gene expression is complex, with layer upon layer of suppressors and enhancers, numerous transcription factors, and a lot of interactions. A gross oversimplification: Clock and Bmal1 are positive regulators of circadian gene expression; Per and Cry are negative (you don’t really need to know any of this).
Some pretty cool progress has been made in examining the effects of global and tissue-specific deletion of circadian rhythm-related transcription factors. Bear with me
For example, global Bmal1 knockout mice (ie, mice that don’t express Bmal1 anywhere in their whole body. Zero Bmal1. Nil.) (Lamia et al., 2008). These mice are obese, and exhibit impaired glucose tolerance yet improved insulin sensitivity.
Posted in Advanced nutrition, angiotensin, circadian, clamp, depression, diet, Dopamine, Energy balance, insulin, melatonin, vasopressin
Tagged bipolar, body composition, calories, calories proper, carbs, circadian rhythm, depression, diet, empty calories, energy balance, energy expenditure, insulin, mania, melatonin, mortality, nutrition
Ketosis. Happens during starvation and also by restricting carbohydrates (and protein, to a lesser degree)… might be important for epilepsy and bipolar disorder, too.
Ketostix measure urinary acetoacetate (AcAc) and reflect the degree of ketosis in the blood probably about 2-4 hours ago. Blood ketone meters measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (bHB) right now. bHB fluctuates to a greater degree, eg, it plummets after a meal whereas AcAc takes longer to decline. AcAc/bHB is usually around 1, but increases after a meal (Mori et al., 1990):
Conversely, when glucose levels decline and fatty acid oxidation increases, liver redox potential drops which reduces AcAc/bHB.
Posted in Advanced nutrition, circadian, depression, diet, Dietary fat, epilepsy, Exercise, fat, Ketosis
Tagged Atkins, calories proper, carbs, circadian rhythm, depression, diet, epilepsy, exercise, fat, ketogenic diet, ketosis