Turmeric and DHA

Turmeric is about 5% curcumins by weight, or it takes about 20 grams of turmeric to get 1 gram of curcumins.

 

 

But you can’t go eating it by the spoonful because: 1) that’s nasty; 2) it’s messy and stains everything yellow; and 3) it’s not bioavailable, like, at all.

 

2g curcumin vs. 2g curcumin + 20mg piperine:

 

 

Fortunately, bioavailability is drastically increased by black pepper &/or dietary fat.  For this reason, most curcumin supps contain either piperine or some sort of lipids.  I’m not a big fan of piperine because it seems to non-selectively increase the absorption of tons of things – and there are some things we don’t absorb for a reason: they’re toxic… so I’d rather just use a little pepper and take it with some seafood.

 

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Specific Absorption Rate

 

I was bored and had a stronger-than-usual espresso, saw the above Tweet, so obviously I decided to read the Health & Safety Guide that came with my cell phone.

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) set specific limits to Radio Frequency (RF) that any given electronic device can emit.  Theoretically, at or below this level is “safe.”  The actual number comes from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).  The overall tone of this document is grave, ie, they take this RF limit very seriously.

 

The limit: 1.6 W/kg (Specific Absorption Rate [SAR]) or 0.0016 W/g.

 

I checked online at www.fcc.gov/oet/ea, and my phone is rated 0.3 Watts (W) at around 1.5 cm – distance is important: in this case, it’s the difference between squashing the phone between your face and your hand vs. holding it a finger tip’s distance away.

 

So, is my brain safe?  Hard to say; how many grams of brain are within 1.5 cm from my brain? If we’re talking whole head exposure, ~4 kg, that’d be ~6 W.  But I’m more concerned about the 4 grams of brain closest to my ear, within that 1.5 cm range, because brain cancer is pretty scary at any level of brain cancer (ie, whether it affects whole brain or just the 4 grams closest to my ear).

I can’t figure out these maths so I’m sticking with earbuds until I can.

 

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LCHF negates performance benefit of training. O_o

It takes about 3 weeks to become fully ketoadapted and you don’t really get more ketoadapted thereafter, at least as per max fat oxidation rates (which seems a pretty good surrogate, imo).

Important point: “Athletes who drop carbs cold turkey suddenly suck.”  And performance usually recovers by around week 3.  This has been confirmed in nearly every proper study on the subject, in a variety of contexts.

 




 

Which brings me to the latest alleged slam on keto & physical performance:

Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit of intensified training in elite race walkers (Burke et al., 2016)

 

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MELATONIN

There are a lot of mysteries involving melatonin, eg, relative importance of gut vs. pineal-derived melatonin.  Does brain melatonin talk to peripheral MT receptors?  Does gut melatonin talk to brain MT receptors?

 

What we do know: oral melatonin works in people with circadian-related sleep disorders.  This may suggest that oral/gut melatonin talks to brain MT receptors OR that oral/gut melatonin corrects circadian sleep problems by acting in the periphery.  OR a major target of brain melatonin is peripheral MT receptors.  I don’t know.

 

And as a further testament that melatonin supps aren’t sleeping pills is that they’re non-addictive and can at least temporarily “fix” circadian sleep problems: after prolonged treatment, people report no withdrawal symptoms and still sleep better even up to two weeks after discontinuation (Lemoine et al., 2011)!

 

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HANGRY! (part deux)

Effects of diet composition on postprandial energy availability during weight loss maintenance (Walsh et al., 2013)

Now, we’re getting somewhere!

3 diets (carbs 10%, 40% or 60%; protein was higher in the lowest carb group). Four weeks. CROSSOVER.

Then a test meal which approximated the diet assignment. Total “energy availability” in the blood was approximated by measuring the calories in blood glucose, free fatty acids, and ketones.

 

energy availability and metabolic rate

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These dudes ate a ton of sat fats and nothing bad happened

Study: 12 weeks, obese men, very high fat low carb (VHFLC) vs. low fat high carb (LFHC) (Veum et al., 2016) #FATFUNC

 

Pictorially:

 

 




 

It wasn’t explicitly AD LIB, but pretty close.  I say this because that is the magnitude of appetite decline we might expect when people go on The Hunger Free Diet(s), eg,

 

^^^ GOOD IDEA

 

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LIGHT is a drug

Three stories about LIGHT

One

Carbon monoxide (CO): one of the nasty things in car emissions & cigarette smoke.  Also, a byproduct of the ever-important heme.  Heme, as you may recall, activates Rev-erb:

 

“Food for thought: an endogenous ligand of Rev-erb is heme (the iron-binding element in red blood cells).  Heme is degraded into bilirubin.  Elevated levels of bilirubin cause jaundice.  A treatment of neonatal jaundice is exposure to blue light.  Blue light is a major regulator of circadian rhythms and Rev-erb is an executive-level player in this game.  The primary mechanisms of blue light appear unrelated in these two models (melanopsin activation vs. bilirubin photoisomerization), but seem intertwined, because heme activates Rev-erb.  Cool.”

 

News: Disruption of the body’s internal clock causes disruption of metabolic processes

Science: Reciprocal regulation of carbon monoxide and the circadian clock (Klemz et al., 2016)

Tl;dr: heme degradation occurs on a circadian cycle and produces CO.  CO prevents Clock/Bmal1 from binding to DNA. Inhibiting this process throws off numerous other circadian rhythms in the liver.

SUNLIGHT and food in the morning, and let endogenously produced CO rhythmically tune the clock in the evening.

 

 

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Ketones inhibit lipolysis

Petro just posted a brief article about acipimox & the insulin hypothesis.  Similar to insulin’s forte, acipimox inhibits lipolysis.  This leads to expansion of adipose tissue, and eventually, weight gain.

Acipimox acts on the same receptor as niacin and ketones, GPR109a.  That is, all three of those agents inhibit lipolysis.  We’ve discussed some of the implications of this on fuel partitioning HERE.

 

ketone-supp-physiology

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If meat causes cancer…

Disclaimer: I’m meat-cancer agnostic.  *IF* meat causes cancer (and I don’t think it does), it happens extremely slowly and only at very high levels of intake: to get statistically significant risk ratios, researchers usually look to top vs. bottom quartiles, which is quite a large difference in intake.

Meat-cancer studies Tl;dr: some studies show positive associations, some neutral, and none are negative (ie, it’s unlikely meat prevents cancer).

That said, if meat does cause cancer, here is how it might happen:

1. The “Maybes:” AGEs, leucine/mTOR, methionine, etc., but only in combination with numbers 2 & 3.  Not by themselves.

2. Circadian arrhythmia and cancer: potential mechanisms

3. Most animal foods have a lot of linoleate 18:2n6 or at least a lot more n6 than n3 (grass-fed is usually a little better in this context).  More on this below.

 

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VEG*N

I’m not vegan but the “Anti-Vegan Because B12” argument is lame.  B12 insufficiency is largely due to malabsorption, not steak deficiency.

Many people take supps, but somehow anti-vegans think B12 invalidates veganism.  It doesn’t.  Also, 1) tons of B12 in oysters; 2) nori B12 works in humans and rats; and 3) mushrooms still haven’t been ruled out as a legit source.  Whether you consider these foods vegan or not is a different story.  Many non-vegans are B12-deficient, too -> all the steak in the world won’t help if you can’t absorb it.

I’m not undermining the severity of B12 deficiency, just noting some basic facts.

My bias: things like T2DM, obesity, and even some cancers and mood disorders are due primarily to circadian arrhythmia, sleep, & LIGHT… and secondarily to diet.

When it comes to diet, mostly plants plus some animal is optimal for humans in our modern #context, regardless of which Ice-Age Paleo-Fairy Tale™ you subscribe to.  Things like sleep, LIGHT, and activity, among others, seem way more important than debating historical [theoretical] dietary minutiae.

Lastly, this particular debate isn’t “vegan vs. keto.”  THEY’RE NOT MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE.  “Eco-Atkins” is a thing.  Animals provide a convenient source of LC protein, but it can be done without them.

 

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