1st Generation: ketone salts. Only problem is the huge dose of salt limits how much you can take without adverse effects… but these are the ones on the market.
2nd Generation: ketone esters.
Advantage: no salt, and probably “slow-release.”
Disadvantage: gonna be WAY more expensive than the salts (which are still pretty expensive).
— Bill Lagakos (@CaloriesProper) March 2, 2016
~40 grams of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (a ketone ester) (from Clarke et al., 2013):
They did this thrice daily, so some people were getting up to 170 grams.
ONE HUNDRED SEVENTY GRAMS
[keep that number in mind]
Fwiw, I don’t have an opinion on these either way — some people swear by ’em, others are *meh,* and there aren’t enough clinical trials to know anything definitive. That said…
Commercially available ketone supps
KetoCaNa tried to get around the salt problem by splitting it up between calcium and sodium. Good move, imo.
$67.50 for 16 servings of 11.7 grams… so basically, in the Clarke study, participants were taking a whole bottle of KetoCaNa every day. I told ya this stuff can get expensive!
However, I strongly suspect the dose can be substantially lowered by following a coconut oil low carb diet… and my guess is that, depending on your goals and #context, 1/20th – 1/10th of that dose may suffice. Ymmv.
Keto // OS by Pruvit: $140 for 30 servings, but the dose isn’t reported on their website. When asked them directly, here’s the response I got:
“Our KETO OS formulation is a proprietary asset of Pruvit and we must protect the integrity of our product.
We do not release any vendor or supplier information to the public, or any specific formula information as it is considered to be part of our proprietary blend, which is confidential.”
Ingredients: MCT Powder, Beta Hydroxybutyrate, Natural Flavor, Malic Acid, and Stevia (they also make a version with caffeine).
What will ketone supps do?
Instant ketosis (duh).
Acute boost in mood, mental clarity, and/or energy?
Could induce a rebound effect of reduced ketosis via suppression of lipolysis (eg, Taggart et al., 2005). Side note: I actually remember where I was when I learned a beta-hydroxybutyrate receptor was discovered, about 15 years ago… it was a big deal!
Protective anti-inflammatory effect in the intestine (eg, Singh et al., 2014).
Impact leptin signaling and/or appetite?
My two cents: I wouldn’t take ketone supps if not on some sort of low(ish) carb diet because the idea of high levels of BOTH fuels (ie, ketones AND glucose) doesn’t seem physiologically appropriate… more like a recipe for disaster, and by “disaster,” I mean “out-of-control production of Reactive Oxygen Species” — this might not matter if you’re an athlete looking for a quick performance boost, because the fuels are going to be cleared rather quickly… not so much if you’re a desk jockey.
Update: Jane Plain mentioned that KetoForce replaces the calcium in KetoCaNa with potassium, which may actually be beneficial for people on ketogenic diets.