Ketone supps

1st Generation: ketone salts.  Only problem is the huge dose of salt limits how much you can take without adverse effects… but these are the ones on the market.


2nd Generation: ketone esters.

Advantage: no salt, and probably “slow-release.”

Disadvantage: gonna be WAY more expensive than the salts (which are still pretty expensive).



~40 grams of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (a ketone ester) (from Clarke et al., 2013):


ketone ester


They did this thrice daily, so some people were getting up to 170 grams.



[keep that number in mind]



Fwiw, I don’t have an opinion on these either way — some people swear by ’em, others are *meh,* and there aren’t enough clinical trials to know anything definitive.  That said…


Commercially available ketone supps


KetoCaNa tried to get around the salt problem by splitting it up between calcium and sodium.  Good move, imo.

$67.50 for 16 servings of 11.7 grams… so basically, in the Clarke study, participants were taking a whole bottle of KetoCaNa every day.   I told ya this stuff can get expensive!


However, I strongly suspect the dose can be substantially lowered by following a coconut oil low carb diet… and my guess is that, depending on your goals and #context, 1/20th – 1/10th of that dose may suffice.  Ymmv.


Keto // OS by Pruvit: $140 for 30 servings, but the dose isn’t reported on their website.  When asked them directly, here’s the response I got:

“Our KETO OS formulation is a proprietary asset of Pruvit and we must protect the integrity of our product.

We do not release any vendor or supplier information to the public, or any specific formula information as it is considered to be part of our proprietary blend, which is confidential.”



Keto OS


Ingredients: MCT Powder, Beta Hydroxybutyrate, Natural Flavor, Malic Acid, and Stevia (they also make a version with caffeine).



What will ketone supps do?

Instant ketosis (duh).



Acute boost in mood, mental clarity, and/or energy?

Could induce a rebound effect of reduced ketosis via suppression of lipolysis (eg, Taggart et al., 2005).  Side note: I actually remember where I was when I learned a beta-hydroxybutyrate receptor was discovered, about 15 years ago… it was a big deal!

Protective anti-inflammatory effect in the intestine (eg, Singh et al., 2014).

Increased adiponectin (eg, Plaisance et al., 2009), which may or may not be a good thing.

Impact leptin signaling and/or appetite?

Impact circadian rhythms and/or epigenetic regulation?

My two cents: I wouldn’t take ketone supps if not on some sort of low(ish) carb diet because the idea of high levels of BOTH fuels (ie, ketones AND glucose) doesn’t seem physiologically appropriate… more like a recipe for disaster, and by “disaster,” I mean “out-of-control production of Reactive Oxygen Species” — this might not matter if you’re an athlete looking for a quick performance boost, because the fuels are going to be cleared rather quickly… not so much if you’re a desk jockey.


Dom keto



Update: Jane Plain mentioned that KetoForce replaces the calcium in KetoCaNa with potassium, which may actually be beneficial for people on ketogenic diets.



calories proper


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  • Wab Mester

    I was hoping you’d comment on this one: ketones as quasi-statins,

  • Ian Rambo

    Pruvit (Keto OS) …. Do MLM companies actual have integrity…lol

    • interesting theory; would need very detailed tracer studies to test directly… assessing flux in vivo is a bitch

    • TechnoTriticale

      re: Do MLM companies actual have integrity

      Pruvit and ForeverGreen are currently suing each other over their respective products. Anyone buying either product will be helping to fund that mutual flailing.

      Concur on the likely unwisdom of consuming EKs on a full-time glycemic diet. EKs seem more suited, in the context of a VLC or keto diet, as a temporary therapeutic measure (e.g. cancer) or for unusual tasks (e.g. deep sea divers).

      • frankLLinVa

        The lawsuit was settled.

        • TechnoTriticale

          re: The lawsuit was settled.

          Thanks. That fact (from last month) didn’t turn up when I searched on it at the time.

          The lawyers should be submitting their near-final invoices right about now.

  • rs711

    “BOTH fuels (ie, ketones AND glucose) doesn’t seem physiologically appropriate… more like a recipe for disaster, and by ‘disaster,’ I mean ‘out-of-control production of Reactive Oxygen Species'” = that’s my intuition too. iirc D’Agostino mentioned preliminary data showing some (metabolic?) therapeutic benefits of ketones even on a SAD diet. To be determined, I guess.

    “We do not release any vendor or supplier information to the public” = dicks

  • Eve

    For lack of a “suggest a post” box, is there any chance you could do a post on wheat, specifically the effects of WGA on the intestines in context? I’m kind of wishing I could unread some of Peter’s posts on the topic.

  • frankLLinVa

    This is incorrect “participants were taking a whole bottle of KetoCaNa every day. ” A) make clear they never took the salts, and B) you have you DOUBLE the intake because Clarke only gave the D form. So it would be similar to 2x (actually 3x, but that is a long story) of a full bottle of that stuff

  • Alex McMahon

    Heard you on a podcast a while back and recently stumbled across your blog and really enjoy the content on here!

  • TechnoTriticale

    re: “Our KETO OS formulation is a proprietary asset of Pruvit and we must protect the integrity of our product.”

    Then they should have avoided the lawsuit. Opposing counsel hired an expert to deconstruct the product:

    “…the product includes a total of at least 10 grams of BHB salts.”,
    and presumably less of just BHB. It appears that of the presently available exogenous ketone products, only KetoSports (Patrick’s product line) will actually tell you how much BHB is in a serving (11.7 grams). The KS products may actually be the best deal at the moment.