As if we needed another study about breakfast. Or 4.

Exhibit A. Participants were given ~30 grams of whey, casein, or carbs 30 minutes before bed (Kinsey et al., 2014). [side note: the closer it is to bedtime, the less food is needed to mess up your rhythms. Worded another way, if you’re gonna have a big dinner, the earlier the better]. The following morning, you guessed it, they weren’t hungry for breakfast. And they had higher insulin levels. FFS. Worded another way, light early dinner -> lower insulin and more hungry for breakfast, in the morning.

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Dopamine and breakfast.

Light and food in the morning.

Metabolism is gimped at night.

Exhibit B1. Expecting mothers: “Across the whole cohort, night-time, but not day-time, carbohydrate intake was positively associated with glucose concentrations after the glucose load and inversely associated with early phase insulin secretion (P < 0.05)” (Chandler-Laney et al., 2016).



Evening is not the best time to carb… but it’s not just carbs… and it affects infants, too.

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Sunlight, Meal Timing, and Circadian Rhythms.

we’re talking some serious epigenetics

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  • Is this really saying anything, though?

    Wouldn’t a large breakfast make you less hungry with higher insulin at supper time?

    • Yes about the hunger, no about the insulin/glucose control.

  • Ann

    What about the theory that carb tolerance is highest when cortisol is lowest?

    Dr. Alan Christianson, an Endocrinologist and Naturopath, guides people to eat increasingly higher amounts of carbs over the day, with the highest carb serving at dinner, amounting to about 3/4 cup. His patients are getting excellent results in labwork and fat loss. He theorizes that carb tolerance is highest in the evening, or dinnertime, when cortisol is lowest.

    Also, don’t carbs lower cortisol? So wouldn’t it make even more sense to eat the carbs in the evening to help lower cortisol and encourage deep and restful sleep?

    Any thoughts?

    • Carb tolerance is a function of circadian rhythms; highest in the morning, lower in the evening. Cortisol is also higher in the morning and lower in evening.

      I would attribute the success of Alan’s successful patients to weight loss.